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Large river headwater ecosystems

Species, assemblages, and processes in headwater areas are distinct from those of their larger mainstems.
The Mississippi Piedmont, Guayanan highlands, Upper Amazon, Upper Paraná, Brazilian Shield, Congo Basin Piedmont harbor a tremendous array of species, including numerous endemics adapted to life in these waters. In turn, these river systems ultimately feed a number of the world's largest and richest rivers.

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