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Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine

  • Scientific Code
  • Ecoregion Category
  • Size
    280,800 square miles
  • Status
  • Habitats


Location and General Description

Biodiversity Features

Current Status

Types and Severity of Threats

Justification of Ecoregion Delineation
This ecoregion is equivalent to the DMEER unit of the same name. It includes the lowland-colline subcontinental meadow steppes and dry grassland vegetation, and lowland-colline lime oak forests of Eastern Europe (Bohn et al. 2000).

Alechin, V. V. Theoretical problems of phytocenology and steppe study ????????????. Moscow State University, Moscow,. (in Russian).

Bohn, U., G. Gollub, and C. Hettwer. 2000. Reduced general map of the natural vegetation of Europe. 1:10,000,000. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn.

Council of Europe. 1995. Coordination of information on protected areas. Ministerial Conference Environment for Europe, Sofia/Bulgaria, 23-25 October 1995. Prepared by Marc Roekaerts. CoE, Strasbourg.

Council of Europe. 1997. Les oiseaux mondialement menacés: situation en Europe - plans d'action. BirdLife International. CoE, Strasbourg,

Council of Europe. 1998. Rapport relatif à la carte sur les sites de conservation de la nature désignés en application des instruments internationaux au niveau paneuropéen. Comité d'experts pour le réseau écologique paneuropéen (STRA-REP-98-2). CoE, Strasbourg.

Council of Europe. 2000. Council of Europe, the Emerald network of the Bern Convention. URL: <>

Davis, S.D., V.H. Heywood, and A. C. Hamilton. 1994. Centres of Plant Diversity. Vol. 1: Europe, Africa, Southwest Asia and Middle East. D.C.: WWF and IUCN.

Delbaere, B.C.W., editor. 1998. Facts and figures on Europe's biodiversity - state and trends 1998-1999. Technical Report Series, ECNC. Tilburg, NL.

EU DG-ENV. 2000. The Directorate General on Environment of the European Union, coordinating the Natura 2000 network (Birds and Habitats Directive). URL:

Flora of the USSR. 1952. V. XVIII. (in Russian).

Gasc J. P., A. Cabela, J. Crnobrnja-Isailovic, D. Dolmen, K. Grossenbacher, P. Haffner, J. Lescure, H. Martens, J. P. Martinez Rica, H. Maurin, M. E. Oliveira, T. S. Sofianidou, M. Veith, and A. Zuiderwijk. editors. 1997. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica & Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (IEGB/SPN), Paris.

Heath, M. F., and M. I. Evans. editors. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. 2 volumes. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Heinzel, H., R. Fitter, and J. Parslow. 1977. Pareys Vogelbuch - Alle Vögel Europas, Nordafrikas und des mittleren Ostens. Aufl. Verl. P. Parey, Hamburg

IUCN 2000. The global red list of species of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. URL:

Kleopov, Y .D. 1990. Analysis of flora of broad-leaved forests of European part of USSR. Kiev: Naukova dumka. (in Russian).

Malyshev, L. I. 1969. Dependence of floristical richness from environment and historical factors. Botanicheskij zhurnal 54(8):1137-1147 (in Russian).

Ozenda, P. 1994. Végétation du Continent Européen. Delachaux et Niestlé, Lausanne.

Smirnova, O. V. editor. 1994. East broad-leaved forests. Nauka, Moscow. (in Russian).

Smirnova, O. V., S. A. Turubanova, M. V. Bobrovskij, V. N. Korotkov, and L. G. Khanina. 2001. Reconstruction of history of forest zone of East Europe and problem of maintenance of biological diversity. Uspehi sovremennoj biologii. 121(2):144-159.

Sokolov, V. E., K. P. Filonov, J. D. Nuchimovskaya, and G. D. Shadrina. 1997. Ecology of protected territories (reserves) of Russia. Yanus-K., Moscow (in Russian).

Stanners, D., and P. Bourdeau. editors. 1995. Europe's environment: the Dobris assessment. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.

Walter, H. 1984. Vegetationen und Klimazonen: Grundriss der globalen Ökologie. Ulmer: Aufl., Stuttgart.

Wheatley, N. 2000. Where to watch birds in Europe and Russia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Zaugolnova, L. B. editor. 2000. Estimation and conservation of forest cover: Biodiversity in the reserves of European Russia, Nauchnyi Mir, ?oscow (in Russian).

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