Temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands

Known as prairies in North America, pampas in South America, veld in Southern Africa and steppe in Asia, Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands differ largely from tropical grasslands in the annual temperature regime as well as the types of species found here. Generally speaking, these regions are devoid of trees, except for riparian or gallery forests associated with streams and rivers.
However, some regions do support savanna conditions characterized by interspersed individuals or clusters of trees. Biodiversity in these habitats includes a number of large grazing mammals and associated predators in addition to burrowing mammals, numerous bird species, and of course, a diversity of insects.

The vast expanses of grass in North America and Eurasia once sustained vast migrations of large vertebrates such as buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), saiga (Saiga tatarica), and Tibetan antelopes (Pantholops hodgsoni) and kiang (Equus hemionus). Such extraordinary phenomena now occur only in isolated pockets, primarily in the Daurian Steppe and Tibetan Plateau (see Montane Grasslands).

The extraordinary floral communities of the Eurasian steppes and the North American Great Plains, have been largely extirpated through conversion to agriculture. Nonetheless, as many as 300 different plant species may grow on less than 3 acres of North American tallgrass prarie, which also may support more than 3 million individual insects per acre. The Patagonian Steppe and Grasslands are notable for distinctiveness at the generic and familial level in a variety of taxa.

Biodiversity Patterns
Relatively low alpha, beta, and gamma diversity, except for some exceptionally rich floras in some regions; most species have relatively widespread distributions; some larger vertebrate species may occur in great abundance.

Minimum Requirements
Many vagile species require large natural landscapes to be able to track seasonal or patchy resources, or to move from areas impacted by large-scale disturbances such as fire; the presence of water and riparian vegetation important for many species; large natural areas are needed to maintain natural fire regimes which are important for maintaining community structure and composition.

Sensitivity to Disturbance
Plowing of grasslands, savannas, and shrublands can drastically alter species compositions and the restoration potential of natural communities; excessive burning or fire suppression can dramatically alter community structure and composition; loss and degradation of riparian or gallery forest habitats and water sources has significant impacts on wildlife; overgrazing causes significant community changes, erosion, and reduction in restoration potential; loss of keystone species such as buffalo, saiga, and prairie dogs can have major impacts on animal and plant communities.


Southeastern Australia
Eastern central Australia
Southeastern part of New Zealand's South Island


South Indian Ocean--Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands
Southwestern Asia: Northern part of Oman


Western short grasslands
Texas blackland prairies
Palouse grasslands
Northern tall grasslands
Northern short grasslands
Northern mixed grasslands
Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands
Montana Valley and Foothill grasslands
Flint Hills tall grasslands
Edwards Plateau savanna
Central tall grasslands
Central forest-grasslands transition
Central and Southern mixed grasslands
Canadian Aspen forests and parklands
California Central Valley grasslands


Southern South America: Southeastern Argentina
Southern South America: Southern Argentina and southeastern Chile
Southern South America: Eastern Argentina
Southern South America: Southern Argentina, stretching northward
South America: Central Argentina
Southern South America: Southern Argentina and Chile


Central Asia: China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan
South Siberian forest steppe
Central Asia: Northern central Mongolia, stretching slightly into southern Russia
Central Europe: Southern Russia
Pontic steppe
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Southwestern Asia: Northeastern Syria and northern Iraq
Central Asia: Kazakhstan
Asia: Khazakhstan and Russian Federation
Asian Palearctic: Russia, Kazakhstan
Central Asia: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan
Northern Europe: Island group north of United Kingdom
Emin Valley steppe
Asia: Iran, Turkey, and Armenia
Eastern Asia: China, northeastern Mongolia, and Russia
Western Asia: Central Turkey
Western Asia: Eastern Kazahkstan
Central Asia: Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, and into Tadjikistan