Xeric basin ecosystems

Little permanent surface water and a relative abundance of springs characterize ecoregions in this major habitat type. Extraordinary freshwater biodiversity in desert regions occurs in the Chihuahuan, Anatolian, and Central Australian freshwater ecoregions.

The Cuatro Ciénegas spring and pool complex in the Chihuahuan Desert is unique in its high richness, extreme endemism, and unusual evolutionary adaptations. As well, rivers in the Anatolian region of Turkey support many endemic species adapted to these waters.