Location and General Description
These forests are found in the north-south Burmese-Java Arc. The Arc is formed by the parallel folded mountain ranges that culminate in the Himalayas in the north. Moving south are the mountain ranges of Patkoi, Lushai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipur, and the Chin Hills. The outer southwestern fringe of mountain ranges forming the Arc is the Arakan Yomas, the southern continuation of the folded mountain ranges branching off from the Himalayas. Geologically the ecoregion has gley and black slates. Dark-colored serpentine and gabbro also are found interstratified within the shales.
The pine forest is found between 1,500 and 2,500 m. Several pine species occur. In the lower elevations P. merkusii is the dominant species, occasionally associated with dipterocarps. Pinus insularis and Pinus excelsa are found at higher altitudes. These species often are associated with numerous broadleaf species such as Tsuga, Picea, Acer, and Quercus. Rhododendron, Ilex, Prunus, and Arundinaria bamboo occur in the understory.
In the late 1950s the Burma Wildlife Survey team found few species except sambar (Cervus unicolor), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and Asiatic black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) in this region. Serow (Capricornis sumatrensis) was plentiful. Large squirrel (Rafuta species), brown squirrel, small chipmunk, and civet also occur there. The dearth of wildlife was caused by deforestation from extensive shifting cultivation resulting in the barren hillsides. There are no endemic mammals in this ecoregion.
The avifauna is also less diverse than the surrounding ecoregions. According to the Burma Wildlife Survey, conducted in the late 1950s, several distinctive birds were found in the region. These include the silver-breasted broadbill (Serilophus lunatus), white-naped yuhina (Yuhina bakeri), rufous-vented tit (Parus rubidiventris saramatii), stripe-throated yuhina (Yuhina gularis), babblers (Timaliidae), grey-sided laughingthrush (Garrulax caerulatus), rufous-chinned laughingthrush (Garrulax rufogularis), striated laughingthrush (Garrulax striatus), cochoa (Cochoa spp.), beautiful nuthatch (Sitta formosa), sultan tit (Melanochlora sultana), leafbird (Chloropsis spp.), and white-browed fulvetta (Alcippe vinipectus). Shelduck and bare-headed geese were seen in tens and hundreds along the Chindwin River. Two additional laughingthrush species are considered near endemics (table 1). More recent information on the status of the region's wildlife is not known.
Table 1. Endemic and Near-Endemic Bird Species.
Family Common Name Species
Timaliidae Striped laughingthrush Garrulax virgatus
Timaliidae Brown-capped laughingthrush Garrulax austeni
An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion.
Until now this ecoregion has remained largely intact because there has been little commercial forestry. Its wildlife has also been spared from commercial wildlife hunting or poaching. Local people use the forest for cooking and building materials and hunt wildlife for food. However, only one small protected area exists in this ecoregion, and its contribution to wildlife protection is minimal (table 2).
Table 2. WCMC (1997) Protected Areas That Overlap with the Ecoregion.
Protected Area Area (km2) IUCN Category
Fakim 4 IV
Ecoregion numbers of protected areas that overlap with additional ecoregions are listed in brackets.
Types and Severity of Threats
The primary threat to the integrity of this habitat is from shifting cultivation. This practice denudes the hillsides of tress, increases erosion and sedimentation of rivers, and deprives wildlife of their habitats.
Justification of Ecoregion Delineation
The westernmost subunit (09c) represents a transition zone between the Indian Subcontinent and Indochina bioregions and is made up of forest formations belonging to the tropical moist forests biome. We included the montane forests of the rugged and highly dissected Chin Hills and Arakan Yomas in a distinct ecoregion: Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma Montane Rain Forests [IM0109]. The lower-elevation tropical evergreen moist forests were included in the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin Rain Forests [IM0131]. The pine forests were placed in the Northeast India-Myanmar Pine Forests [IM0303].
This region does not correspond well to Udvardy's biogeographic provinces. The Myanmar Coastal Rain Forests [IM0132] cover Udvardy's Burman rain forest, southwestern portion of the Thai monsoon forest, and western portion of the Indochinese rain forest. The Irrawaddy Moist Deciduous Forests [IM0117], Irrawaddy Dry Forests [IM0205], Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma Montane Rain Forests [IM0109], Northeast India-Myanmar Pine Forests [IM0303], and Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin Rain Forests [IM0131] roughly correspond to Udvardy's Burman rain forest and Burma monsoon forest.
References for this ecoregion are currently consolidated in one document for the entire Indo-Pacific realm.
Indo-Pacific Reference List
Prepared by: U Saw Han and Saw Tun Khaing