Canadian Aspen forests and parklands

This ecoregion stretches in an arc from the Manitoba/North Dakota border in the east to central Alberta in the west with a disjunct occurrence in northwestern Alberta crossing the British Columbia border in the Peace River area.

This ecoregion is classified primarily as having a subhumid low boreal ecoclimate, which distinguishes this ecoregion from the warmer, drier areas to the south and the cooler boreal forests to the north. It also has a transitional grassland ecoclimate. Summers are short and warm, and winters are cold and long. The mean annual temperature ranges from 0.5°C to 2.5°C; the mean summer temperature ranges from 13°C to 16°C; and the mean winter temperature ranges from -14.5°C to -12.5°C. The Peace River Lowland area of the region generally represents the coolest temperatures for each range, while the Southwest Manitoba Uplands region represents the warmest temperatures. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 375 mm to just under 700 mm; with the driest area being in the northwestern section of the Mid-Boreal Lowlands (ESWG 1995). Fire is probably the most important natural disturbance regime.

Much of the region is underlain by Cretaceous shale, and covered by undulating to kettled, calcareous, glacial till with significant areas of level lacustrine and hummocky to ridged fluvioglacial deposits. Associated with the rougher hummocky glacial till are a large number of small lakes, ponds and sloughs occupying shallow depressions. The gently undulating or sloping lands associated with the Peace River are underlain by Tertiary sandstone and shale strata, covered mainly by imperfectly drained clayey lacustrine sediments with some fine-textured tills and sandy fluvioglacial deltas associated with the major river systems. Finally, the Interlake Plain area is underlain by flat-lying Paleozoic limestone, and covered by broadly ridged, extremely calcareous glacial till, and by shallow, level, lacustrine sands, silts and clays (ESWG 1995).

  • Scientific Code
  • Ecoregion Category
  • Size
    153,400 square miles
  • Status
  • Habitats

Biological Distinctiveness
Vegetation in this ecoregion is characterized by a cover of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) with secondary quantities of balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), together with an understory of mixed herbs and tall shrubs. White spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) are the climax species, but are not well represented because of fires. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands may be present on drier, sandy sites. Poorly drained sites are usually covered with sedges (Carex spp.), willow (Salix spp.), some black spruce (P. mariana), and tamarack (Larix laricina). In the Turtle Mountain and Spruce woods areas (TEC 163, 164), quaking aspen dominates with secondary quantities of balsam poplar, although white spruce and balsam fir are the climax species if fires do not occur frequently (ESWG 1995).

Characteristic wildlife include moose (Alces alces), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), black bear (Ursus americanus), wolf (Canis lupus), beaver (Castor canadensis), coyote (Canis latrans), marten (Martes americana), mink (Mustela vison), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides), Franklin's ground squirrel (Citellus franklinii), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympahuchus phasianellus), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), black-billed magpie (Pica pica), cormorant (Phalacrocorax spp.), gull (Larus spp.), tern (Sterna spp.), American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and many neotropical migrant bird species (ESWG 1995).

Of ecological significance, the Aspen Parkland and Forests ecoregion represents the most extensive boreal-grassland transition in the world. This ecoregion contains the northernmost breeding distribution for many warbler species (Parulinae) and has some of the most productive and extensive waterfowl breeding habitat on the continent. White-tailed and black-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and O. hemionus ) reach their northern continental limit here.

Conservation Status

Habitat Loss and Degradation
It is estimated that less than 10 percent of the natural habitat in this region remains intact. Of the 90 percent disturbed, most has been converted to agricultural cropland, including canola (Brassica napsus), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Cultivation of land for grazing purposes is also widespread. In those parts of the ecoregion where forests cover was historically more widespread, forest harvesting continues in the remaining farm woodlots.

Remaining Blocks of Intact Habitat
Few significant blocks of habitat remain. These include:

•Moose Mountain Provincial Park - southeastern Saskatchewan - approx. 266 km2
•Elk Island National Park - central Alberta - 194 km2
•Bronson Forest - Saskatchewan
•Wainwright Military Reserve - Alberta
Degree of Fragmentation
There are very high levels of habitat fragmentation due to agriculture. This is particularly true for most forest species.

Degree of Protection

•Moose Mountain Provincial Park - Saskatchewan - 265.91 km2
•Spruce Woods Provincial Park (Backcountry zones) - southern Manitoba - 201 km2
•Elk Island National Park - Alberta - 194.3 km2
•Turtle Mountain Provincial Park (Backcountry zones) - southwestern Manitoba - 118 km2
•Rumsey Ecological Reserve - south-central Alberta - 34.32 km2
•Sand Lakes Natural Area - central Alberta - 28.44 km2
•Wainwright Dunes Ecological Reserve - eastern Alberta - 28.21 km2
•Jack Pines Natural Area - central Alberta - 18.59 km2
•Silver Valley Ecological Reserve - western Alberta - 18.05 km2

Types and Severity of Threats
Ongoing agricultural conversion of remnant patches of natural habitat, often for grazing and haying, are important threats, as is logging for aspen in many of the remaining forested areas. In fact, aspen pulpwood harvests are expanding in the ecoregion. Extensive use of agricultural pesticides is a major concern for wildlife populations. Predator control is still occurring in some areas, and is becoming more problematic with the start-up of game farms. Seismic oil and gas exploration is widespread in many areas.

Suite of Priority Activities to Enhance Biodiversity Conservation
Generally speaking, habitat protection and restoration are needed throughout the ecoregion. Some specific sites include:

•Porcupine Forest, Bronson Forest and Nisbet Forest in Saskatchewan
•Major Sand Hills throughout the ecoregion.
•Establish Manitoba Lowlands National Park
•Shilo Defense Base in Manitoba
•Protection standard upgrades required for select wildlife management areas in Manitoba.
•Runsey Block of Alberta
•Beaverhill Lake in Alberta
Conservation Partners
Alberta Wilderness Association

Brandon Naturalists' Society

Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Calgary/ Banff Chapter

Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Edmonton Chapter

Critical Wildlife Habitat Program

Ducks Unlimited Canada

Endangered Spaces Campaign - Manitoba

Endangered Spaces Campaign - Saskatchewan

Federation of Alberta Naturalists

Friends of Elk Island Society

Friends of Prince Albert National Park

Lower Fort Garry Volunteers

Manitoba Heritage Habitat Corporation

Manitoba Naturalists Society

Meewasin Valley Authority

Nature Saskatchewan

The Nature Conservancy, Alberta

The Nature Conservancy, British Columbia

Red Deer River Naturalists

Resource Conservation Manitoba

Saskatchewan Forest Conservation Network

Sierra Club

TREE (Time to Respect the Earth's Ecosystems)

Watchdogs for Wildlife

The Wildlife Society

World Wildlife Fund Canada

Relationship to other classification schemes
The Canadian Aspen Forest and Parklands weave across four Canadian provinces and encompass eight terrestrial ecoregions: the Peace Lowland, Western Boreal, Boreal Transition, Interlake Plain, Aspen Parkland, and Southwest Manitoba Uplands (TEC 138, 143, 149, 155, 156, 161, 163, and 164). These ecoregions lie in both the Boreal Plains Ecozone and the Prairies Ecozone (Ecological Stratification Working Group 1995). The Boreal sections are Manitoba Lowlands, Aspen-Oak, Aspen Grove, Mixedwood, and Lower Foothills (15-17, 18a and 19a). This ecoregion also overlaps some of the grasslands adjacent to the south of this ecoregion (Rowe 1972).

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