Location and General Description
The Illyrian deciduous forests extend all along the coastal ranges of the Eastern Adriatic coast, from the eastern Alps to the northern Ionian coast between Albania and Greece.
The ecoregion is characterized by an average annual rainfall of 1,500-2,000 mm, which can locally exceed 3,000 mm. Of particular interest is the extremely heavy rainfall of the Velebit Mountains in Dalmatia (over 3,000 mm annually). Snow falls frequently during winter and January average temperatures are below freezing (from -10 º C to 0 º C). Average temperatures in July are between 15 to 20 º C.
The wide altitudinal range of this ecoregion results in two major forest zones: a conifer zone, occurring at the highest elevations (average altitudinal range of 1,200-2,500 m), and a mixed broadleaf zone, covering medium elevations and lowlands. The dominant canopy tree species of the mountain conifer forests are spruce (Picea abies), silver fir (Abies alba), and black pine (Pinus nigra). Mixed fir, spruce, and beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests frequently appear all along the high elevations and the more continental east-facing slopes.
Broadleaf beech and mixed oak forests dominate at medium and lower altitudes in deep soil and humid elevations, valleys and canyons. A remarkably high diversity of deciduous oak species (Quercus frainetto, Q. pubescens, Q. cerris, Q. virgiliana, Q. dalechampii) and other deciduous broadleaf species (Carpinus orientalis, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, Tilia spp., Sorbus spp., Acer spp.) characterize the coastal slopes. Evergreen trees, mainly holm oak (Quercus ilex) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), and maquis shrubs (Pistacia terebinthus, Rhamnus alaternus, Phillyrea latifolia, Arbutus unedo) become predominant at the lower altitudes near the coast.
The endemism rate of the ecoregion’s flora is between 10-20%. Notable among the endemic and relict species are Degenia velebitica, Primula kitaibeliana, Symphyandra hofmannii, Bupleurum karglii, Viola elegantula, and Sibiraea croatica. Many plant taxa related to these forest ecosystems have a very restricted distribution range (i.e. Velebit Mountain range) and are included as threatened species on the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants.
The ecoregion supports a very high faunal diversity, mainly with regard to its birds. A few examples are capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). The region encompasses several IBAs (Important Bird Areas) and threatened SPECs (Species of European Concern). Large carnivores such as brown bear (Ursus arctos), lynx (Lynx lynx), and wolf (Canis lupus), as well as large herbivores like roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), maintain significant populations in the mountain ranges.
The ecoregion has an outstanding underground fauna associated with aquatic habitats of the karst systems. About thirty species of the relict genus Niphargus (an underground crustacean) and several underground shrimp of the genus Troglocaris inhabit almost all types of underground habitats. In karst springs and littoral caves, Bogidiella dalmatica can be found. Abundant endemic fish species of genus Paraphoxinus are also found in underground waters.
The mountain ranges of this region have had low human populations, and tall forests still prevail widely throughout. A significant number of pristine large forest stands remained quite untouched until very recently. Rapid and intense forest degradation in the form of illegal logging, pollution, and fire took place during the recent Balkan conflicts that led to the division of the Former Yugoslavia into a number of independent republics. Overexploitation of forests is ongoing in certain areas due to the political instability of most countries in the ecoregion.
Types and Severity of Threats
Human impact remains high in this ecoregion, mainly due to the socio-economic and political instability of most countries in the ecoregion, where illegal logging, illegal hunting, and uncontrolled plant harvesting have already destroyed extensive forest areas-- including those within certain protected areas.
Justification of Ecoregion Delineation
This ecoregion in the coastal Grecian and Dinaric mountains and islands is equivalent to the DMEER unit of the same name. It is primarily composed of coastal sub-Mediterranean and meso-supra-Mediterranean downy oak forests with small units of meso-Mediterranean Holm oak forests (Bohn et al. 2000). These vegetation types have been terminated in the north at the eastern edge of the Po Basin and in the south at the southern boundary of a climatic-vegetation developed during the DMEER process.
Bohn, U., G. Gollub, and C. Hettwer. 2000. Reduced general map of the natural vegetation of Europe. 1:10 million. Bonn-Bad Godesberg 2000.
Boitani, L. 1999. Final Draft Action Plan for Conservation of Wolves (Canis lupus) in Europe. WWF, Switzerland.
Breitenmoser U, et al. 1999. Final Draft Action Plan for Conservation of Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) in Europe. WWF, Switzerland.
?edomil, S. 1984. Endemi?ne Biljke. Priroda Jugoslavije. Zagreb.
Digital Map of European Ecological Regions (DMEER), Version 2000/05 (http://dataservice.eea.eu.int/dataservice/metadetails.asp?table=DMEER&i=1)
Fukarek, P. 1977. Zur Gliederung der illyrischen Florenprovinz in natürliche Vegetationsgebiete mit Hilfe der Waldgesellschaften. Cbl. ges. Forstw. 94.
Gomez Campo, C. 1985. Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Ecosystems. Junk Ed. (Geobotanica 7).
Heath, M.F. and Evans, M.I., editors. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. Vol 2: Southern Europe. BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No: 8).
Horvat, I. 1962. La végétation des montagnes de la Croatie d'Ouest. Acta biol. 2 Jug. Akad. Zagreb 30.
Horvat, I., V. Glavac and H. Ellenberg 1974. Vegetation Südosteuropas, Stuttgart.
Horvat, S. 1957. Pflanzengeographische Gliederung des Karstes Kroatiens und der angrenzenden Gebiete Jugoslawiens. Acta bot. croat. 16.
IUCN. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Publication Service Unit, Cambridge.
Krause, W. et al. 1963. Zur Kenntnis der Flora und Vegetation auf Serpentinstandorten des Balkans. 6. Vegetationsstudien in der Umgebung von Mantoudi. Euböa. Bot. jb. 82.
Kutle, A., editor. 2000. An overview of the State of Biological and Landscape Diversity of Croatia with the Protection Strategy and Action Pans. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. Zagreb.
Markgraf, F. 1932. Pflanzengeographie von Albanien. Biblioth. Bot. 105.
Mayer, H. 1984. Wälder Europas. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart
Medail, F. and Quezel, P. 1997. Hotspots Analysis for Conservation of Plant Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin. Ann. Missouri Gard. 84
Miljani?, M. [ed.] 1994. Crvena Knjiga, biljnih vrsta, Republike Hrvatske. Ministarstvo Graditeljstva I Zaštitu Okoliša, Zagreb.
Shackleton, D.M., editor, and the IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group. 1997. Wild Sheep and their Relatives. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Swenson, J.E. et al. 1999. Final Draft Action Plan for Conservation of the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) in Europe. WWF, Switzerland.
Water, K.S., and Gillett, H.J., editors. 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by WCMC. IUCN, Publication Service Unit, Cambridge.
Wendelberger, G. 1963. Die Schwarzföhrenwälder Südosteuropas. Mitt. flor.-soz. Arbeitsgem. N. F. 10.
WWF and IUCN. 1994. Centres of Plant Diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. 3 Volumes. IUCN Publication Service Unit. Cambridge.
WWF. 2001. The Mediterranean forests. A new conservation strategy. WWF, MedPO, Rome.
WWF. In preparation. Mediterranean Forest Gap Analysis Database. WWF, MedPO, Rome.
Prepared by: Pedro Regato
Reviewed by: Leann Trowbridge