Solving the Mystery of MPA Performance: Resources

The following list contains publications on MPAs contributed to by WWF's Conservation Science staff and collaborators. From this page you can request publications or download other resources.

    Peer-reviewed publications

  1. Fox, H.E., C.S. Soltanoff, M.B. Mascia, K.M. Haisfield, A.V. Lombana, C.R. Pyke, and L. Wood. 2012. Explaining Global Patterns and Trends in Marine Protected Area (MPA) Development. Marine Policy 36 (5): 1131-1138. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.02.007

    National-level factors may shape the enabling environment for MPA formation. Size and numbers of MPAs (to 2010) were assessed with ecological and social indicators. Coastline length, HDI, and area in WWF priority ecoregions correlate (+) with MPAs. Fishers correlate (+) with MPA # and had no relationship with MPA spatial extent. These explain little variation, therefore sub-national processes are likely important.

  2. Fox, H.E., M.B. Mascia, X. Basurto, A. Costa, L. Glew, D. Heinemann, L. Bunce Karrer, S.E. Lester, A. Lombana, R. Pomeroy, C.A. Recchia, C. Roberts, J.N. Sanchirico, L. Pet-Soede, A. White. 2012. Reexamining the Science of Marine Protected Areas: Linking Knowledge to Action. Conservation Letters 5 (1): 1-10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00207.x

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are often implemented to conserve or restore species, fisheries, habitats, ecosystems, and ecological functions and services; buffer against the ecological effects of climate change; and alleviate poverty in coastal communities. Scientific research provides valuable insights into the social and ecological impacts of MPAs, as well as the factors that shape these impacts, providing useful guidance or “rules of thumb” for science-based MPA policy.

  3. Haisfield, KM, HE Fox, S Yen, S Mangubhai, P J Mous (2010) An ounce of prevention: cost-effectiveness of coral reef rehabilitation relative to enforcement Conservation Letters 3: 243–250. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00104.x

    Blast fishing has destroyed many coral reefs in Southeast Asia by creating large fields of dead coral rubble where new coral recruits settle but cannot survive and grow. Possible management responses include reef rehabilitation of damaged areas, and/or increased enforcement to protect still-living ones.

    Here we show that in Komodo National Park, Indonesia, rehabilitation by installing locally-quarried rocks on blasted rubble fields can be relatively low cost (∼US$4.80 per m2) and simple, but it is not economically viable at large scales.

  4. Mascia, M.B., C.A. Claus, R. Naidoo. 2010. Impacts of marine protected areas on fishing communities. Conservation Biology. 24 (5): 1424-1429. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01523.x

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following MPA establishment, food security generally remained stable or increased in older and smaller MPAs.

  5. Mascia, M.B., and C.A. Claus. 2009. A Property Rights Approach to Understanding Human Displacement from Protected Areas: The Case of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology 23 (1): 16-23. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01050.x

    The physical, economic, and sociocultural displacement of local peoples from protected areas generates intense discussion among scholars and policy makers. To foster greater precision and clarity in these discussions, we used a conceptual framework from the political economy literature to examine different forms of human displacement from protected areas. Using marine protected areas (MPAs) to ground our analysis, we characterized the 5 types of property rights that are reallocated (lost, secured, and gained) through the establishment of protected areas.

  6. Factsheets

  7. Glew, L. M.B. Mascia, F. Pakiding. 2013. Solving the Mystery of MPA Performance: Social impacts of MPAs in the Bird’s Head Seascape. World Wildlife Fund and Universitas Negeri Papua, Washington D.C., United States, and Manokwari, Indonesia.

    A summary of work and results 2010-2012 in the Bird’s Head Seascape of Papua, Indonesia.

  8. Mascia, M.B., L. Glew, H. Fox. 2011. Solving the Mystery MPA Performance: Linking governance, biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation in Indonesia. WWF Factsheet. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.

    Our basic 2-pager describing the project

  9. Research protocols & instruments

  10. Glew, L., M.B. Mascia, F. Pakiding. 2012. Solving the mystery of MPA performance: monitoring social impacts. Field manual (version 1.0). World Wildlife Fund and Universitas Negeri Papua, Washington D.C., United States and Manokwari, Indonesia.

    A partnership of conservation scholars, practitioners and policy-makers, led by WWF and the State University of Papua (UNIPA), has developed simple yet rigorous monitoring systems for documenting and explaining the variation in MPA performance, under real-world operating constraints in West Papua, Indonesia. The methodology described in this field manual has been implemented across an emerging MPA network in the Bird’s Head Seascape of Indonesia, after an initial pilot phase in 2010. This document is intended to be a reference manual for MPA managers and researchers, providing guidance on how to implement the methods developed in the Bird’s Head Seascape in other contexts.

  11. Mascia, M.B., F. Pakiding, and L. Glew. 2012. Social Impacts of Marine Protected Areas: Household Survey. Version 2.3. World Wildlife Fund and Univeristas Negeri Papua, Washington, D.C., United States and Manokwari, Indonesia

    Household Survey instrument used, as described in the field manual.

  12. Mascia, M.B., F. Pakiding, and L. Glew. 2012. Social Impacts of Marine Protected Areas: Focus Group Instrument. Version 2.1. World Wildlife Fund & Univeristas Negeri Papua, Washington, D.C., and Manokwari, Indonesia.

    Focus Group survey instrument used, as described in the field manual.

  13. Mascia, M.B., F. Pakiding, and L. Glew. 2011. Social Impacts of Marine Protected Areas: Key Informant Interview Instrument. Version 2.0. World Wildlife Fund & Univeristas Negeri Papua, Washington D.C., United States and Manokwari, Indonesia.

    Key Informant Interview Instrument, as described in the field manual.

  14. Media coverage

    Borrell, B. 2013. Let the fish breathe. Scientific American, April 2013, 74-79.

    Borrell, B. (2013) Marine Protected Areas Protect Villagers As Well As Reefs in Raja Ampat. (1 April 2013)