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WWF works to sustain the natural world for the benefit of people and wildlife, collaborating with partners from local to global levels in nearly 100 countries.
The following list contains publications on MPAs contributed to by WWF's Conservation Science staff and collaborators. From this page you can request publications or download other resources.
National-level factors may shape the enabling environment for MPA formation. Size and numbers of MPAs (to 2010) were assessed with ecological and social indicators. Coastline length, HDI, and area in WWF priority ecoregions correlate (+) with MPAs. Fishers correlate (+) with MPA # and had no relationship with MPA spatial extent. These explain little variation, therefore sub-national processes are likely important.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are often implemented to conserve or restore species, fisheries, habitats, ecosystems, and ecological functions and services; buffer against the ecological effects of climate change; and alleviate poverty in coastal communities. Scientific research provides valuable insights into the social and ecological impacts of MPAs, as well as the factors that shape these impacts, providing useful guidance or “rules of thumb” for science-based MPA policy.
Blast fishing has destroyed many coral reefs in Southeast Asia by creating large fields of dead coral rubble where new coral recruits settle but cannot survive and grow. Possible management responses include reef rehabilitation of damaged areas, and/or increased enforcement to protect still-living ones.
Here we show that in Komodo National Park, Indonesia, rehabilitation by installing locally-quarried rocks on blasted rubble fields can be relatively low cost (∼US$4.80 per m2) and simple, but it is not economically viable at large scales.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following MPA establishment, food security generally remained stable or increased in older and smaller MPAs.
The physical, economic, and sociocultural displacement of local peoples from protected areas generates intense discussion among scholars and policy makers. To foster greater precision and clarity in these discussions, we used a conceptual framework from the political economy literature to examine different forms of human displacement from protected areas. Using marine protected areas (MPAs) to ground our analysis, we characterized the 5 types of property rights that are reallocated (lost, secured, and gained) through the establishment of protected areas.
A summary of work and results 2010-2012 in the Bird’s Head Seascape of Papua, Indonesia.
Our basic 2-pager describing the project
A partnership of conservation scholars, practitioners and policy-makers, led by WWF and the State University of Papua (UNIPA), has developed simple yet rigorous monitoring systems for documenting and explaining the variation in MPA performance, under real-world operating constraints in West Papua, Indonesia. The methodology described in this field manual has been implemented across an emerging MPA network in the Bird’s Head Seascape of Indonesia, after an initial pilot phase in 2010. This document is intended to be a reference manual for MPA managers and researchers, providing guidance on how to implement the methods developed in the Bird’s Head Seascape in other contexts.
Household Survey instrument used, as described in the field manual.
Focus Group survey instrument used, as described in the field manual.
Key Informant Interview Instrument, as described in the field manual.