The 2012 Fuller Symposium brought together a diverse set of thought leaders to share insights into the role that science, innovation, and policy can play in combating these crimes. Through presentations and panel discussions, experts discussed how illegal wildlife trade weakens government authority, wreaks economic havoc, threatens food security, and creates civil instability among communities that are disenfranchised as their natural resources are stolen.
Session One: The Big Picture of Conservation Crime
Crawford Allan is Regional Director of Traffic, the wildlife trade network and strategic alliance between WWF and IUCN, with a mission to ensure the trade in animals, plants, timber and fisheries is beneficial for conservation and people. Based with WWF-US in Washington, D.C. since 2005, he oversees efforts to leverage North American assets to protect wildlife globally from the negative aspects of wildlife trade. He has led TRAFFIC on international black market investigations and pushed for strong enforcement actions for more than a decade, during which some of the largest seizures, major arrests and prosecutions occurred. From 1995 to 2005 he was chairman of the United Kingdom’s government Forensics Working Group of the Partnership for Action Against Wildlife Crime.
Dr. Kent Butts
Professor of Political Military Strategy, U.S. Army War College
Director of the National Security Issues Group, Center for Strategic Leadership
"Conservation crime: the national security dimensions"
Dr. Butt’s research focuses on the role of natural resources in national security. He headed the U.S. delegation and co-chaired the NATO Environmental Security Pilot Study Meetings in Warsaw and Prague, and was a member of the U.S. delegation to the OSCE Economic Forum. Dr. Butts participated in the 2011 Defense Science Board Climate Change and Security Study and is an author or editor of numerous publications, including the 2012 book, Sustainability and National Security. A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, he holds an M.A. and Ph.D. in Geography from the University of Washington, and was a John M. Olin Post-Doctoral Fellow in National Security at the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University.
Marcia oversees the execution of WWF’s strategy, guiding our work in policy, markets and field conservation and resolving complex business problems. She is also our executive lead for the CARE-WWF Alliance, a partnership addressing the linkages between poverty and environmental degradation. Marcia serves on the Governing Committee of the Natural Capital Project, a partnership between Stanford University, The Nature Conservancy and WWF to transform institutional and market decision-making using ecosystem services. She is also responsible for the performance of critical operating systems, including human resources, finance and IT, which support the work of more than 800 employees in the U.S. and abroad. She has 26 years of general business and human capital consulting experience focusing on helping complex organizations achieve their business strategies.
Monica Medina was appointed to the Senior Executive Service of the Department of Defense on May 17, 2012. Ms. Medina advises the Secretary on key priorities, including energy efficiency and environmental policy, women in the military, and the transition of veterans into civilian life. Ms. Medina joined DOD from the Department of Commerce, where she served as the Principal Deputy Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere of NOAA. She also served as the U.S. Commissioner to the International Whaling Commission. Prior to joining the Obama Administration, Ms. Medina served as a Senior Officer in the Pew Environment Group, a partner at the law firm of Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe, held a number of positions in the Clinton Administration and on Capitol Hill and began her legal career as a Captain in the Army.
Ms. Medina’s opinions expressed at the event are her own.
Session Two: Reducing Supply and Demand
Dr. Meredith Gore is Assistant Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. Her research interests include public perceptions of risk to and from wildlife, for example poaching and corruption. She also explores the sociocultural phenomena that affect criminal human behaviors in conservation, such as mass media and conservation governance. Her work on Conservation Criminology aims to synergize collaborations among conservation, criminology and decision science using mixed scientific methods. To date, her work has focused on Madagascar, Namibia, global white shark habitats, and the Great Lakes Basin. She received a BA in Anthropology and Environmental Studies from Brandeis University, a MA in Environment and Resource Policy from The George Washington University, and a PhD in Natural Resource Policy and Management from Cornell University.
David Greer has been involved in great ape conservation and research in Africa since 1994. Since then, he has collected data on chimpanzee behavior and ecology in Tanzania and mountain gorilla behavior and demographics in Rwanda and Uganda. In 1998, he left eastern Africa to work at various field sites in the Republic of Congo and Central African Republic, where he habituated western lowland gorillas for research and tourism. In 2003, he began to focus his efforts on supporting WWF central African field programs and government agencies on ameliorating national and regional wildlife law enforcement strategies in an effort to slow the rapid decline in African great ape and forest elephant populations. He is presently the African Great Apes Program Coordinator for the WWF International Global Species Program.
Peter Knights was formerly a program director working on illegal wildlife trade with Global Survival Network and a senior investigator for Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA). He specialized in conducting global on-site investigations and campaigned against the trade in wild birds for pets and the consumption of endangered species in traditional Chinese medicine. In 1996 he created the Active Conservation Awareness Program, the first international program aimed at reducing demand for endangered species products. The program used sophisticated advertising techniques, and donated airtime and celebrity spokespeople with the message, ‘When the buying stops, the killing can, too.’ This work earned him an Associate Laureate of the Rolex Award for Enterprise. Peter holds a B.Sc. in Economics from the London School of Economics.
Eric has worked in the marketing field since 1996, most recently as Vice President for Tribal DDB Greater China. Eric has advised companies including Sony, IBM, Intel, Proctor & Gamble, Unilever, Tourism Australia, McDonald's and Volkswagen on their advertising and communications strategies across Asia Pacific.
As a digital marketing specialist, Eric has won numerous international awards for his advertising campaigns, combining technology, data driven insights and creativity to drive business solutions. Eric has also been an active member of the advertising community, having served as Vice Chairman of the Hong Kong industry's Digital Committee and Head Lecturer for the Advertising Federation of Australia's AdSchool Course at the University of Technology, Sydney.
Session Three: Innovations
Ken Goddard began his law enforcement career as a deputy sheriff/criminalist working in Crime Science Identification (CSI) analyzing evidence for the Riverside and San Bernardino County, California crime labs. Goddard then moved to the Huntington Beach Police Department to establish a Scientific Investigation Bureau. In 1979, he joined USFWS to direct the first and only wildlife crime lab in the world. He has written many books, fiction and non-fiction and advised for the television series CSI. He earned his B.S. in Biochemistry at the University of California, Riverside and his M.S. in Criminalistics at California State University in Los Angeles.
Adam manages WRI’s Forest Legality Project, a new initiative to combat illegal logging through the creation of the Forest Legality Alliance. Before joining WRI, Adam worked in South East Asia to improve tropical forest management and responsible supply chain management. Based in Indonesia, he worked initially for the Rainforest Alliance’s FSC SmartWood program and then as a consultant for major forest product producers trading throughout Asia and Europe. Previous to his work in Indonesia, Adam worked as a forest contractor and timber importer in Sweden, Finland and the U.K., and was also based in China working on projects related to poverty alleviation centered on natural resource management in the province of Sichuan and in the Tibetan Autonomous Region.
Jon Hoekstra leads WWF’s Conservation Science Program and works with more than 400 WWF scientists to provide innovative research and technical assistance to conservation projects around the world. Since the beginning of his career as an endangered species biologist, Jon has been committed to using science to craft practical and effective conservation solutions. As a global science leader, he used science to reveal the biome crisis in the world’s grasslands, revamped conservation strategies to adapt to climate change, and revealed how habitat protection and restoration can help people as well as nature.
Dr. Lian Pin Koh researches emerging environmental and socioeconomic challenges facing tropical developing nations, including intensifying land-use conflicts, carbon emissions from land-use change and forestry, and threats to natural ecosystems and wildlife. He employs a variety of scientific approaches to his work including field surveys and experiments, and theoretical and computer simulation models. He also develops and implements innovative approaches to data collection and developing science-based decision-support tools for land use decision makers, including ConservationDrones.org, REDDCalculator.com, SpeciesExtinctionCalculator.com, LandUseCalculator.com, and DeforLeaks.org.
Rebecca Moore is a computer scientist and longtime software professional. At Google, she conceived and leads the Google Earth Outreach program, which supports nonprofits, communities and indigenous peoples around the world in applying Google's mapping tools to the world's pressing problems in areas such as environmental conservation, human rights and cultural preservation. Rebecca also initiated and leads the development of Google Earth Engine, a new technology platform that supports global-scale monitoring and protection of the earth’s environment. Rebecca received a bachelor’s degree with honors from Brown University in Artificial Intelligence and a master’s degree from Stanford University. Her personal work using Google Earth was instrumental in stopping the logging of more than a thousand acres of redwoods in her Santa Cruz Mountain community.
Session Four: Policy Solutions
Dr. Bennett oversees the Wildlife Conservation Society’s global species conservation programs. Born in the UK, she attended Nottingham University and earned her Ph.D. for research on the ecology of primates in Peninsular Malaysia from Cambridge University. She has been recognized for her service to conservation and earned several awards including the Golden Ark from by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in 2005.
Kathryn Fuller is currently chair of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History and a managing partner in Doyle Property Partners. She was president and chief executive officer of World Wildlife Fund from 1989 to 2005, and now serves as President Emerita. Prior to that, she was executive vice president, general counsel and director of WWF’s programs in public policy and wildlife trade monitoring. Before joining WWF, she worked at the U.S. Department of Justice, first in the Office of Legal Counsel, then as a trial attorney in the Land and Natural Resources Division where she helped create and later headed the Wildlife and Marine Resources Section. Fuller received her BA in English and American literature from Brown University. She earned a law degree with honors from the University of Texas and pursued graduate studies in marine, estuarine and environmental science at the University of Maryland. She has conducted field work on wildebeest behavior and coral reef crustaceans. She serves on a number of boards, including those of Alcoa Inc., the Summit Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Greater Himalayas Foundation.
Ginette oversees WWF’s programs on conservation science, conservation finance, climate change, conservation leadership, campaigns, and program operations. She tracks execution of WWF-US’s local-to-global strategy to conserve ecologically important places and leads advocacy campaigns to advance WWF’s conservation agenda and protect endangered and threatened species. Her previous roles at WWF include managing vice president for conservation, vice president for species conservation, and director of TRAFFIC North America. Prior to joining WWF, she worked for the US Fish and Wildlife Service. She holds a B.S. in biology from the College of William and Mary, studied history and philosophy at Oxford University, and is an ELIAS Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Robert Hormats is the Under Secretary of Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment. Under Secretary Hormats was formerly vice chairman of Goldman Sachs (International). He has served as Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs from 1981 to 1982, Ambassador and Deputy U.S. Trade Representative from 1979 to 1981, and Senior Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic and Business Affairs from 1977 to 1979. He earned his PhD in International Economics from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and his publications include The Price of Liberty: Paying for America's Wars from the Revolution to the War on Terror; Abraham Lincoln and the Global Economy; American Albatross: The Foreign Debt Dilemma; and Reforming the International Monetary System.