Indoor Soilless Farming: Phase I: Examining the industry and impacts of controlled environment agriculture

This Innovation Analysis from The Markets Institute at WWF examines the environmental impact of various systems of indoor soilless farming. These systems include hydroponics, aquaponics, and aeroponics in greenhouse and vertical settings.

At scale, this method of farming - also known as controlled environment agriculture - could have positive effects for the environment by decreasing pressures on land, biodiversity, natural habitat, and climate. However, the industry also faces hurdles that prevent it from moving beyond its current specialization in high-end leafy greens. This Analysis looks at how we might address some of these challenges and help bring these systems to scale. 

Updated 3/13/23 with a correction to graphs on page 19.