• Status
    Least Concern
  • Population
    about 1 million
  • Scientific Name
    Antilocarpa americana
  • Height
    Approximately 3 feet at the shoulder
  • Weight
    110 - 125 pounds
  • Length
    39-59 inches
  • Habitats
    grasslands, deserts

The pronghorn antelope is the fastest hoofed animal in North America and is capable of reaching speeds up to 60 mph. During the winter of 2011, WWF monitored a pronghorn herd that made the longest terrestrial migration in the U.S.'s lower 48 states. Most pronghorn populations remain stable, but have experienced a historic decline. Pronghorn follow the same migration corridors year after year, generation after generation. Today, the thoroughfares that link the summer breeding grounds and winter grazing areas are being fragmented by roads, cities, fences and energy development. These fragmentations threaten the migratory routes and survival of pronghorn.

How bison survive winter in the Northern Great Plains

Despite roaming vast distances in the Northern Great Plains, bison do not move south as the weather grows cold and inhospitable, though they may move to lower elevations where snow is not so deep. Temperatures plummet well below zero, bitter winds whip across the landscape, and bison still remain.

bison covered in snow

Why They Matter

  • Pronghorn are an indicator of healthy sagebrush systems which can suffer from fragmentation and degradation. They are North America’s fastest land mammal and embark on the longest land migration of any hoofed animal in America’s lower 48 states.


  • Population about 1 million
  • Extinction Risk Least Concern
    1. EX

      No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died

    2. EW
      Extinct in the Wild

      Known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalised population

    3. CR
      Critically Endangered

      Facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the Wild

    4. EN

      Facing a high risk of extinction in the Wild

    5. VU

      Facing a high risk of extinction in the Wild

    6. NT
      Near Threatened

      Likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future

    7. LC
      Least Concern

      Does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Near Threatened

A small herd of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) cross over a hilltop as a storm brews overhead. Montana, Northern Great Plains, United States

Every year, pronghorn herds follow the same migration pathways as their ancestors. Habitat fragmentation from fences, roads and energy development create barriers and threaten the animal’s ability to safely return to seasonal breeding and wintering grounds. Energy development can also degrade vital grounds, displace herds and fragment seasonal migration routes.

What WWF Is Doing

Two pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in a field. Montana, Northern Great Plains, United States

WWF works to understand pronghorn migrations and ensure migration routes are unobstructed in the future. In 2011, WWF monitored one of the longest pronghorn migrations on record. The herd battled record snow falls and pushed further south than ever before to find nourishment. This work helped conservation organization across the U.S .better understand where and how these annual migrations take place, and what conservation priorities will be necessary in the future.


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